In 2011, the OIV adopted a guide which established and accurately described the various actions to be implemented in vineyards and cellars to minimise the presence of biogenic amines in wines
Nitrogenous fertilization of the soil, the poor state of health of the grapes combined with mould, a high must pH and the development of certain yeasts during alcoholic fermentation can all favour a moderate level of biogenic amines; thereafter, certain bacteria can, during malolactic fermentation, significantly increase the presence of biogenic amines in wines. Post-fermentative maceration can also favour the formation of biogenic amines.
The mentioned practices are particularly recommended when a wine has high pH levels and is aged with few prior oenological treatments. The recommendations are based on current knowledge and may be updated in accordance with research undertaken.